||Enhancing problem understanding
||Focusing on an improvement of problem understanding is often a prerequisite for further action which leads to actual changes. Such a strategy can include a wide range of actions from "awareness raising" to research. However, problem perception depends on a person's role and is somehow culturally shaped.
||Open collective learning
||Learning is personal and a social process which can be facilitated. Learning may range from simple imitation over creative adaptation to very innovative recombination of different skills and experiences. Openness to experiences of other individuals, other regions and other cultures can be very helpful and speed up the finding of solutions for recognised problems. Such openness combined with self-reflection and confidence in one's own identity is an important source of innovation. Elements of a strategy of encouraging open collective learning could include: strengthening the identity by identifying the own specificities, exchanging experiences, learning how to manage creative adaptation, making accessible interesting examples.
||Negotiation and co-decision
||Self-governance of communities relies on their capability to reach reliable agreements. Negotiations including all stakeholders concerned are essential for gaining large support, durable decisions and equitable solutions. Adequate procedures and skills are needed for negotiating, a negotiation strategy has to cultivate these prerequisites. Negotiation is an essential strategy element for making possible Participation, Partnership and Subsidiarity. Proposing negotiation means accepting that there are different views and interests that have some stake and that should be integrated in a decisionmaking process. Negotiation makes sense only if at the end there stands some kind of co-decision.
||Creation of a shared vision
||Development is shaped by an endless stream of mini-decisions which are largely determined by the visions of the decision-makers. Without some kind of shared vision no coherent objectives and strategy can be formulated and implemented. A shared vision can be created in many ways. Depending on the issue and the group/ community it may take days or years. Visions may have very different degrees of concreteness. Appropriate methods for creating visions include scenario building, discussion on best practices and public debates.
||In a general sense of client orientation all strategies should consider carefully the interests, the needs and the capabilities of their target group. In a more narrow sense, a client-oriented strategy may directly start from the requests of the target group and involve it directly in the formulation of the action.
||For learning, and for making responsibility more operational, transparency, self-reflection and feedback concerning objectives, actions and achievements are important. Systematic approaches can be helpful:
- to formulate objectives in terms of concrete results and effects and to revise them when necessary
- to monitor achievements and difficulties
- to evaluate results and effects.
Self-reflection is essential for learning. Transparency on objectives and achievements is essential for participation.